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components of a slot machine The contributing factors to these effects remain under-explored.
We believe that sound is one of these key contributing factors.
Sound plays an important role in reinforcement, and thus on arousal level and stress response of players.
It is the use of sound for positive reinforcement in particular that we believe influences the player.
In the current study, we investigate the role that sound plays in psychophysical responses to slot machine play.
A total of 96 gamblers played a slot machine simulator with and without sound being paired with reinforcement.
Skin conductance responses and heart rate, as well as subjective judgments about the gambling experience were examined.
The results showed that the sound influenced the arousal of participants both psychophysically and psychologically.
The sounds also caused players to significantly overestimate the number of times they won while playing the slot machine.
Sound has always been an integral component of slot machine play.
Since the early 1900s, slot machine winning combinations have been accompanied by a ringing bell; a design characteristic that is still present in most machines today.
Up until about the early 1990s, sound changed little from the early days, on average featuring about fifteen sound effects; whereas, today slot machines average about 400 sound effects Rivlin.
Winning sounds are particularly important to the popularity and attraction of the machines, and losing sounds are rarely heard.
Indeed, winning sounds are carefully constructed to be heard over the ambient noise of the environment, in order to draw attention to the machines and to raise the self-esteem of the player, who then becomes the centre of attention on the floor Griffiths and Parke.
Often, the winning music contains high-pitched, major mode songs, which has a tendency to increase the perception of urgency Haas and Edworthy.
Casino ambience is an important contributor to gambling behaviour Griffiths and Parke ; Dixon et al.
The flashing lights, the visual design of the space, and in particular the use of loud sounds serves to create feelings of excitement that distract the player by increasing cognitive load see Kranes ; Skea and, critically, give the impression that winning is much more common than losing.
Griffiths and Parke hypothesized that background sounds and music might increase confidence of the players, increase arousal, help to relax the player, help the player to disregard previous losses, and induce a romantic state leading them to believe that they may win.
Physiological Response to Sound Researchers have conjectured that winning sounds may provide a form of second-order conditioning that is reinforcing Schull ; Parke and Griffiths.
Studies measuring changes in skin conductance levels as participants listen to music date back to at least the 1940s e.
For example, Smith and Morris found that stimulating music increased worry and anxiety, whereas Rohner and Miller found that music had no influence on anxiety levels.
Pitzen and Rauscher and Hirokawa more recently found that stimulating music increased skin conductance responses but not heart rate.
Previous studies have typically examined the physiological effect of music in isolation of other sensory modalities.
In slot machines, however, sounds are invariably paired with images.
In modern multiline slot machines, there is a perceptual onslaught of sights and sounds that accompany the win.
In the visual domain, the symbols responsible for the win are often animated, causing them to stand out from the non-winning symbols.
In addition, for multiline games, the winning line is highlighted for the player by a coloured line that joins the symbols responsible for the win.
Advertising research suggests that image and sound, when used congruently tend to amplify each other e.
As such, studies into the response to sound in slot machines must take into consideration the amplifying effect of the visual stimuli.
Perhaps the closest corollary to modern slot machines is video games.
Previous research into the physiological response to playing video games has shown that sound has a considerable effect on physiological arousal in video games.
Wolfson and Case found that colour and volume of sound impacted heart rate in videogame play.
In a short pilot study, Grimshaw et al.
While those results were largely inconclusive, the same authors followed up with a second study Nacke et al.
Neither electrodermal activity EDA nor facial electromyography EMG were influenced by the sounds of the game.
It should be noted, however, that only tonic measurements changes over the entire sound on and off epochs were recorded.
It is possible that physiological responses to sound may have occurred for specific events within the game.
In this same study, Nacke et al.
Their finding that sound impacted the subjective reactions of players, but not their physiological reactions led the authors to conclude that there may have been too many factors for an accurate psychophysiological response.
The sounds that accompany slot machines have been much less researched than those of video games.
One study by Loba et al.
The authors contrasted a condition in which the speed of slots play was increased and the sound was on, with a second condition where the speed of play was slower than normal and the sound was turned off.
Pathological gamblers rated the slow speed-no sound condition as being both less enjoyable and less exciting than higher speed play with sound.
While this experiment suggests that sound may play a role in arousal and enjoyment, sound and speed of play were confounded, making it difficult to unambiguously link sound to arousal.
Arousal Response to Slot Machines During slot machine play our pupils may dilate, our heart rate may increase and our palms sweat, elevating our skin conductance level, indicating how arousing slot machine play can be.
Brown suggested that arousal was the major reinforcer of regular gambling behaviour, and Anderson and Brown documented that problem gamblers showed much higher arousal than non-problem gamblers at a casino.
The patterns of arousal may depend on wins and losses: Coventry and Constable and Coventry and Hudson documented substantial heart rate increases for players who won, compared to negligible changes for those who lost.
Skin conductance responses SCRs are often used to measure event-related phasic moment to moment changes in arousal linked to the processing of emotionally-laden stimuli.
In the gambling domain, Dixon et al.
Wins led to significantly larger SCRs than losses.
In a different study using a slot machine simulator, Dixon et al.
Similar findings have been shown by Lole et al.
Moment-to-moment changes in heart rate can also be used as an index of arousal during slot machine play.
For slots play on both actual slot machines and on slot machine simulators, winning outcomes led to significant heart rate deceleration, whereas losing outcomes did not.
A particularly intriguing aspect of modern multiline slot machines involves the capability of players to bet on more than one line at a time.
Consider for example a player who bets 10 cents on each of nine lines, for a total wager of 90 cents per spin.
When they spin and lose their entire wager, the machine goes into a state of quiet in both the visual and auditory domain.
When they spin and win more than their wager e.
On a substantial proportion of spins, however, the payback is less than the spin wager e.
Despite the fact that the player actually loses money on this spin, e.
These outcomes have been referred to as losses disguised as wins or LDWs Dixon et al.
In modern slot machines, there are counters that clearly show the total spin wager, and other counters that show how much the player won on a given spin.
Despite this information, novice slot machine players tend to ignore the information on these counters and focus on the exciting elements of the games the animated symbols and celebratory songs to inform them if they have won or lost.
Indeed, the majority of novice players when exposed to LDWs indicate that these were winning spins, even though they lost money on these outcomes Jensen et al.
Furthermore, after a playing session, if players are asked to estimate on how many spins they won more than they wagered, players tend to markedly overestimate the number of wins the LDW overestimation effectlikely because they either misinterpret LDWs as wins, or slot machine flowers they conflate LDWs and wins in memory.
In sum, the auditory feedback that accompanies slot machine outcomes may make for a more exciting playing experience Loba et al.
In addition, they may also serve as an important part of the disguise in LDWs.
The Current Study In this study, participants played two sessions on a realistic multiline slot machine simulator.
In one session sound- onwins and LDWs were accompanied by visual celebratory feedback in addition to custom-created rolling sounds and winning jingles.
These sounds were composed to sound similar to existing slot machines, but ensuring that players would not be familiar with the exact sounds used.
In a second session sound- offthe sounds were turned off, and only the visual celebratory feedback identical to session one occurred.
Both skin conductance responses and heart rate deceleration were recorded for each outcome.
At the end of play, we asked players which session they preferred and https://chicago-lawyer.info/slot-machine/50-cent-slot-machine.html />We also asked them to estimate how many times they won more than they wagered on each session.
We predict that sound contributes to enjoyment click here excitement during play such that players will rate excitement and enjoyment higher and have increased physiological response measures during play with sound.
We also predict that players will overestimate the number of times they won during slots play the LDW overestimation effect when playing with the sound on.
Gambling severity level, as assessed by the Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index CPGI Ferris and Wynneranged from 0 to 22.
Slot machine gambling frequencies were assessed using the CPGI and ranged from 0—365 times within the last year.
There were 46 18 female non-problem gamblers PGSI scores from 0 to 231 15 female Moderate-Risk gamblers PGSI scores from 3 to 7 and 19 11 female problem gamblers 8 or over on the PGSI.
The non-problem gamblers were subdivided into two groups based on their slot machine gambling frequency.
There were 26 11 female low-frequency non-problem gamblers who gambled less than 12 times per year and 20 machine by slot state rules femalehigh-frequency non-problem gamblers who gambled at least once per month.
Participants were excluded if they had a history of heart disease or abnormality, had hearing difficulties, were taking stimulant or depressant medication, or were currently in treatment for problem gambling.
The Powerlab link amplified the ECG signal from three disposable electrodes attached below each clavicle and above the left hip ground.
Skin conductance levels were recorded using non-gelled electrodes attached to the upper phalanges of the middle and index fingers of the left hand.
The simulator sent an event marker to the Powerlab indicating the type of outcome win, LDW or loss.
The marker was sent as soon as the fifth reel stopped spinning i.
Slot Machine Simulator Game Planit Interactive Corp A nine-line realistic simulator was used to simulate slot machine play see Fig.
This game had a visual and sonic musical instrument theme.
The simulator had counters that showed the number of lines played, the amount bet per line, and the total bet per spin.
As in commercially available slot machines, during multiline play, the amount of credits that the player gained on that spin was shown upon outcome delivery.
In addition, the combination of symbols responsible for the line win was shown by a line connecting the symbols.
Credit gains were accompanied by winning jingles whose lengths ranged from 1.
Also like commercially available machines, the bigger the win the longer the song.
A simulator was used rather than an existing slot machine because it allowed for several levels of customization and control beyond what could be achieved using an actual slot machine.
Most importantly, it afforded the ability to equate the number of wins, LDWs and losses in the sound- on and sound- off conditions.
The Game Experience Questionnaire GEQ IJsselsteijn et al.
We used the 14 article source in-game component designed for repeated assessments of game experience two questions per component.
The GEQ asks participants questions concerning their game experience e.
here categorical responses are converted to a 0—4 scale, and the total component score is based on the average of the two questions tapping that component.
The wording of the two immersion questions were altered to fit slots play to retain the 14 item structurebut the immersion component was not analyzed.
Next, they were asked which block of spins they preferred block 1 or block 2and then asked an open-ended question why they preferred that block of spins.
Procedures All participants were asked to participate in a research study recruited through either an ad on Kijiji or a poster at the slots venue.
Upon showing an interest in participating, participants read an information synopsis of the study and informed consent was obtained.
After giving consent, players filled out the Gambling involvement section of the CPGI, then the PGSI.
As described above, participants filled out a number of questionnaires peripheral to the purpose of this study.
Players started with 1,500 credits at the beginning of a slots session, and ended up with 1,110 credits.
The possibility of winning extra funds was used to combat the artificiality of the experience see Anderson and Brown.
Players then played two slots sessions on the simulator in which players bet 1 credit on each of nine lines.
Participants played two blocks of 200 spins each sound- on and sound off were counter-balanced across participants.
Each block was composed of 144 losses, 28 LDWs, and 28 wins.
In each block, participants wagered 1,800 credits 9 credits per spin × 200 spins.
The simulator paid out a total of 1,605 credits for a payback percentage of 89.
The LDWs formed two separate bins with 14 spins in each bin.
Wins were arranged into 4 bins: there were 8 spins yielding credit gains of 10—17; 9 spins yielding credit gains of 18—50 credits, 8 spins yielding credit gains of 51—99 credits, and 3 spins yielding credit gains of between 100 and 130 credits.
Each of the two blocks involved the same series of 200 outcomes but the sequential order of the outcomes was reversed across blocks.
The spin rate was constrained.
Following https://chicago-lawyer.info/slot-machine/slot-machine-odds-payout.html outcomes, the spin button was disabled for 3 s on wins this duration was partially filled by the winning songs.
After 3 s participants could initiate the next spin.
This was done in order to effectively measure heart rate deceleration.
Results Heart Rate Deceleration HRD was measured using inter-beat intervals, which refers to the temporal distance in ms between R-waves of consecutive heartbeats.
The pre-outcome IBI was the temporal distance between the two heartbeats just prior to outcome delivery.
Post-outcome IBIs were separated into four bins: IBI 1 comprised the temporal distance slot machine animation casino the first and second heart beats following outcome delivery; IBI 2 comprised the distance between beats 2 and 3 post-outcome; IBI 3 nuove machine da gratis the distance between beats 3 and 4; and IBI 4, the distance between beats 4 and 5.
Heart beat trains were scanned and filtered to minimize artefacts typically due to movements.
Two participants dropped out prior to completing both conditions both were moderate risk gamblers; 4 and 7 on the PGSI.
For 9 participants, the ECG signals were too noisy to analyze optimal filtering still led to hundreds of artefactsor other technical problems prevented us from analyzing the data.
For the remaining 85 participants, R-waves were labelled, and the pre-outcome IBI, and 4 post-outcome IBIs were analyzed.
Prior to calculating averages for each person, the IBIs were submitted to the Van Selst and Jolicoeur observation-dependent outlier elimination procedure.
This ensured that any artefacts not detected by the scanning protocol were removed prior to the main analysis.
The outlier-free data was analysed using a 2 × 7 × 5 × 4 mixed-model ANOVA with Sound Condition sound- on, sound- offOutcome losses, 2—4 credits, 5—8 credits, 10—17 credits, 18—50 credits, 51—99 credits, 100—130 credits and IBI pre-outcome IBI, IBI1, IBI2, IBI3, IBI4 as the within factors, and with Gambling Status Group, Lo-freq NPG, Hi-freq NPG, Moderate-Risk, PG as the between factor.
Importantly there was neither a main effect of Sound, nor any other higher order interactions involving this variable.
Figure shows the Outcome by Gambling Status Group interaction.
This interaction appears to be caused by an overall reduction in the heart period of the low-frequency non-problem gamblers at the largest win sizes compared to the moderate-risk group.
This interaction was not predicted, does not involve sound, and therefore was not decomposed further.
Lo- Freq NPGs low frequency non-problem gamblers, Hi- Freq NPGs high frequency non-problem gamblers, Moderate- Risk moderate risk gamblers, PGs problem gamblers Figure shows the patterns of HRD for the different outcomes, and reveals that heart rate deceleration is absent for the losses the dashed line in Fig.
The largest heart rate deceleration is for wins from 100 to 130 credits.
Although heart rate deceleration appears to differentiate wins from losses, there was no support for the prediction that sounds would increase heart rate deceleration.
SCRs were calculated by first defining a 2-s window that occurred 1 s after outcome delivery the final reel stopping.
To calculate the SCR, the skin conductance level at the beginning of the window was subtracted from the peak skin conductance level within the window.
To reduce the potential skew of SCRs, a square root transformation was applied to these difference scores Dawson et al.
Since the numbers of observations for each outcome were very different e.
Of the 96 participants, 2 dropped out prior to completing both conditions as noted aboveand 6 could not be analyzed due to technical problems.
In addition, prior to conducting this analysis one low-frequency non-problem click at this page participant with extremely https://chicago-lawyer.info/slot-machine/dragon-lines-video-slot-machine.html SCRs over 3 standard deviation units across multiple outcome conditions was eliminated.
SCRs on the remaining 87 participants were analyzed using an Outcome losses, 2—4 credits, 5—9 credits, 10—17 credits, 18—50 credits, 51—99 credits, 100—130 credits by Condition sound- on, sound- off repeated measures ANOVA with Gambling Status Group Lo-freq NPGs, Hi-freq NPGs, Moderate-Risk, PGs as a between subjects variable.
In this preliminary analysis, there was neither a main effect nor any interactions involving Gambling Status.
In order to get more stable estimates of error variance, the Outcome by Sound condition ANOVA was re-run without this Gambling Status variable.
SCRs in response to the outcomes were significantly higher in the sound- on condition compared to the sound- off condition.
This main effect can be seen in Fig.
There were no significant main effects of Sound, or Gambling Status Group or any significant interactions for any of the core components of the Game Experience Questionnaire.
Arousal and Pleasantness The subjective feelings of arousal and pleasantness for the sound- on and sound- off blocks were compared using repeated measures Analyses of Variance with Sound sound- on, sound- off as the repeated variable, and Gambling Status Group Lo-freq NPGs, Hi-freq NPGs, Moderate-Risk, PGs as a between-subjects variable.
For pleasantness, there was no main effect of Sound condition, no main effect of Gambling Status, and no interaction between these variables.
Preference for the Session with Sounds Ninety-one participants gave an answer to the question of whether they preferred the sound- on or the sound- off block of spins.
Of these 91 participants, 66 72.
Of the 66 participants who preferred the sound- on block over the sound- off block, 42 explicitly mentioned the sounds as the reason for their preference.
An additional five participants mentioned that they thought they won more during the session with winning sounds even though the two sessions were equated for the amount won.
As can be seen in Fig.
As can be seen in Fig.
Post hoc analyses least significant differences test indeed revealed that the components of a slot machine and problem gamblers did not differ in their win estimates, nor did the high and low frequency non-problem gamblers, but the moderate-risk and problem gamblers both reported significantly higher win estimates than the low and high frequency non-problem gamblers.
Skin conductance responses were significantly larger for outcomes in the sound- on condition than in the sound- off condition.
Players also subjectively rated the sound- on condition as being significantly more arousing than the sound- off condition.
Thus both skin conductance responses and subjective reports suggest that winning sounds make the game more arousing.
The vast majority of the players that were tested preferred the playing session where wins were accompanied by sounds.
This suggests that not only do sounds make the playing session more arousing, but also that they find this arousal pleasurable.
If, as Brown has suggested, arousal is the reinforcer of gambling behaviour, then the results of this study suggest that sounds contribute to the arousing properties of modern multiline slots play and by extension gambling behaviour.
One limitation of the psychophysical data collected in this study involves heart rate deceleration.
Here we showed that although HRD appeared to be sensitive to winning versus losing outcomes, it was insensitive to the presence or absence of sound.
Sound did not increase the rate of deceleration compared to the sound- off condition.
SCRs on the other hand were sensitive to the presence of sounds, and support the subjective arousal ratings of the participants.
Multiline slots games feature a specific type of loss that at least some players miscategorize as a win.
Previously Jensen et al.
When players were asked to estimate the number of spins on which they won more than they wagered within a playing session, these novice players tend to overestimate these numbers of wins.
The degree of overestimation depends on the number of losses disguised as wins that they encounter.
Here, we show that sounds contribute to this overestimation effect.
Overall, players overestimated machine gratis slot buffalo number of times that they won playing this slot machine simulator.
In the sound- off condition, players on average estimated that they won 33 times when in reality they were only exposed to 28 wins thus, on average they overestimate by 5 i.
Crucially, this propensity to overestimate these wins is exacerbated when sounds accompany the losses disguised as wins.
In this sound- on condition, players estimated that they won on average 36 times an overestimation of 8 i.
As such, sounds may be an integral part of the disguise in the losses disguised as wins, causing players to think that they won more often during a playing session than they actually did.
We have argued that losses disguised as wins LDWs are a failure of categorization.
We propose that the similarity between the sights and sounds of the actual wins and LDWs causes players to miscategorise these outcomes as wins rather than correctly categorize these outcomes as losses.
In this study, we showed that sounds contribute significantly to this miscategorization process.
Although sounds impacted the physiological and psychological arousal levels experienced by participants, and influenced their preference, sounds did not impact scores on the Game Components of a slot machine Questionnaire.
Recall that this questionnaire was designed to measure the experiences of video games, with much of the work involving first-person shooter type games with specific stories being an integral part of the game.
Indeed, our results seem to suggest the opposite of the results to a first-person shooter—sound induced psychophysiological changes, but no sound induced changes in GEQ scores.
One possibility for this discrepancy is that the core dimensions measured by the GEQ do not capture the role of sound in slot machine games.
In slot machine games there is no violence, no story and no skill, and it may be that slots games preferentially activate arousal via their variable ratio reinforcement schedules Haw.
For this arousal dimension, players in this experiment indicated that sound played a key role.
There were, of course, some limitations to the study presented here.
Although the casino floor may have provided more accurate results in some respects, it would have required us giving up much experimental control.
Indeed, using a separate testing room is particularly beneficial to a study such as this, because we could not expect a casino to turn off the sound of even one never mind all of its slot machines, and the sound of winning from other machines may have influenced the outcome here.
Another potential limitation of our study is that in order to control outcomes components of a slot machine our study, we used a slot machine simulator and not a real slot machine.
The simulator was designed to be as similar to a real slot machine as possible in terms of its audio-visual content.
The slot machine simulator was necessary in order for us to manipulate and test the key variables of interest.
Indeed, only by controlling the payback percentage, the number of wins, and the total amounts won at the end of the sound-on and sound-off sessions, for example, can we implicate the importance of sound.
To mitigate the potential limitations of our experiment, we provided subjects with an opportunity to win real money, increasing the realism of wins and losses Ladouceur et al.
Furthermore, the use of a within-subjects design meant that we could make reasonable assumptions regarding the results.
Future research may wish to explore the response of players in real casino settings, perhaps employing ear plugs and noise cancelling headphones to reduce auditory feedback although it is nearly impossible to completely eliminate sound since we hear through bone conductance in addition to through our ears.
In sum, the sounds that accompanied a multiline video slots game impacted the arousal of participants both psychophysically, and psychologically.
Importantly, our research suggests that sound effects may be an integral component to the disguise in losses disguised as wins.
Although sounds may have contributed to their enjoyment of the game, sound may also lead to an overestimation of winning.
Both of these effects may contribute to the gambling problems, such as misbeliefs about the true chances of winning, and persistence that some players experience when playing slot machines.
While we cannot expect casinos to turn off the sound in their slot machines, we believe that altering or removing the sonic disguise of losses disguised as wins may impact the overestimation effect to which sound is a clear contributor.
Notes Acknowledgments The researchers acknowledge the generous support of the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre for the funding of this project.
Special thanks to Lisa Wojrowicz, Sarah Moros and Jeff Templeton for their help in aspects of the data analysis.
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Copyright visit web page Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and the source are credited.
Department of Psychology University of Waterloo Waterloo Canada About this article Cite this article as: Dixon, M.
J Gambl Stud 2014 30: 913.
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Total 13 comments.